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The world's largest gem diamond ever found is the 3,106 (about 1.3 pounds) carat Cullinan Diamond. It was discovered in Pretoria, South Africa, by superintendent Frederick Wells on 26 January 1905. This was cut into nine large stones and 96 smaller ones. The Star of Africa, which came from the Cullinan, is still one of the world's largest cut diamonds, weighing 530.2 carats.

The Golden Jubilee Diamond, 545.67 carats, is the largest faceted diamond in the world. It is owned by King Bhumidol Adulyadej of Thailand. It was presented to him for the celebration of his 50th coronation anniversary.

The Kohinoor Diamond ("Mountain of Light") is one of the most famous diamonds in the world. It was first owned by the Rajah of Malwa, whose family had held the diamond for 100's of years. Originally described as weighing 240, and after multiple re-cuts, it now weighs 108.93 carats. The Kohinoor Diamond belonged to various Indian and Persian rulers but it became part of the Crown Jewels of England at the time that Queen Victoria was proclaimed empress of India. The Kohinoor was re-cut at that time to its current weight of 108.93 carats, brilliant white and oval in shape, adorning Queen Elizabeth’s crown along with 2800 smaller diamonds. The Kohinoor resides in the Tower of London with the rest of the Royal Family’s crown jewels. Though beautiful, a famous curse has always been associated with the diamond.

The Hope Diamond, currently housed at the Smithsonian in Washington, D.C., is a large 45.52 carat deep blue diamond, with origins dating back to the 1600's. Originally purchased by King Louis XIV in 1669 from Jean-Baptiste Tavernier, it was purported to be a triangular shaped 115 carat raw stone that was thereafter cut into a 67.125 carat gem that the royals deemed the Blue Diamond of the Crown and later the French Blue. In September of 1792 the jewel was stolen by a group of thieves and subsequently re-cut to what is now known as the famous Hope Diamond, having been acquired by the Hope family, a prominent Anglo-Dutch banking family in the 1880's.